- Characteristics of Shoes and their Types
- Associated Shoe or Radier
- Shoes: Advantages
- Foundations: Structural work
- Shoes and Leveling
Shoes are part of the surface foundation of reinforced concrete. They are dimensioned so that the tensile stresses that act on the foundation do not fall on the concrete but in the armature. Learn more below.
The shoes have a small height in relation to the dimensions of the base. These, in turn, are generally rectangular, square or trapezoidal.
They are suitable for land where the soil is stable.
Characteristics of Shoes and their Types
Shoes are used when the underground survey probes point to the presence of hard clay. They support low to medium load.
Are structures "Semi-flexible" and, unlike the foundations that work the simple compression, the shoes work the flexion.
The type most used in construction is the insulated shoe. It is the most simple and superficial, sized to withstand the weight of only one column or pillar. It is found in circular, square, rectangular and others.
For continuous constructions, such as walls and walls, the running shoe is used. Also it is a shallow foundation and the excavation dispenses machines, being able to be made only with the hands. It is usually made with cyclic concrete (composed of hand stones).
Finally, the lever shoe - or balance beam - is used when its base is not aligned with the center of gravity of the abutment because it is located near currencies or other conditions that constitute an obstacle.
A beam is created between two shoes, balancing the whole.
Associated Shoe or Radier
When the ground is less stable, requiring greater depth, or when several abutments do not align when viewed in plan, the associated shoe, also known as radier, is used. This occurs when two shoes end up getting too close for lack of space. Or at the option of engineers.
The associate is a single shoe that receives the load of two or more nearby pillars. They have two systems: concrete slab (flexible system) and slab and concrete beams (rigid system).
Do not forget to install the sewage pipes and drains before setting the radier.
Shoes are relatively cheaper than other basic structures. They are fast-running and do not require special equipment to be made: the concrete consumption is low and the excavation does not have to be deep.
Among the shallow foundations are the structures that withstand greater load capacity.
Foundations: Structural work
The foundations are structures executed by the laying of stones or solid annealed bricks and mainly concrete, in ditches of little depth (between 0,50 to 1,20 m) and width varying according to the load of the walls.
Shoes and Leveling
Either type of foundation should be level. If necessary, make a layer of mortar for leveling (regularization) on the ready foundation.
To prevent soil moisture from rising up the walls, apply a layer of mortar with waterproofing to the foundation or leveling layer.
This mortar must be laid without smoothing. When it is dry, apply a waterproofing paint.